Sociologica https://sociologica.unibo.it/ <p><strong>Socio<em>logica</em> – International Journal for Sociological Debate – ISSN 1971-8853</strong> an international, peer-reviewed journal committed to fostering rigorous debate not only about theoretical and methodological issues but also about the practice of the sociological craft. Founded in 2007, Socio<em>logica</em> is one of the first international journals of sociology issued solely online and fully open access.</p> Department of Arts, University of Bologna en-US Sociologica 1971-8853 <p>The copyrights of all the texts on this journal belong to the respective authors without restrictions.</p><div><a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/" rel="license"><img src="https://licensebuttons.net/l/by/4.0/88x31.png" alt="Creative Commons License" /></a></div><p>This journal is licensed under a <a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/" rel="license">Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a> (<a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode">full legal code</a>). <br /> See also our <a href="/about/editorialPolicies#openAccessPolicy">Open Access Policy</a>.</p> Social Spaces and Field Boundaries in Reputation Formation: An Introduction https://sociologica.unibo.it/article/view/15634 <p>This article introduces a symposium on <em>Social Spaces and Field Boundaries in Reputation Formation</em>, which includes four sociological articles. Here, we have provided a general context to the symposium by discussing reputation research and exploring new sociological directions. Despite its importance to understand cooperation in various social contexts (e.g., groups, populations, and organizations), and its centrality in many socially constructed systems of evaluation (e.g., online markets, science, and intellectual professions), reputation is still under-investigated in sociology. At the same time, current reputation research in other disciplines, such as behavioral sciences, evolutionary biology, and management studies, neglects the importance of sociological factors, including the role of contextual features and boundary conditions across various social fields. This symposium aims to tackle these challenges by presenting a selection of articles that focus on the uniqueness of reputation-driven human cooperation, the relationship between social evaluations and governance failures, the gender dimension of reputation, and the role of reputation repair in international politics. We believe that these articles offer a compact overview of the different ways in which social evaluations can contribute to explain social dynamics. By considering different levels of analysis, i.e., micro, meso and macro levels, they can stimulate sociological research and debate on this important topic.</p> Francesca Giardini Flaminio Squazzoni Copyright (c) 2022 Francesca Giardini, Flaminio Squazzoni https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-10-17 2022-10-17 16 2 1 10 10.6092/issn.1971-8853/15634 A Reputation-Centered Theory of Human Cooperation and Social Organization https://sociologica.unibo.it/article/view/14196 <p style="font-weight: 400;">While all species are unique, only humans have been able to develop complex tools and technology, and to place energy and their environment under control. Social learning and extrasomatic storage of information enabled rapid development in recent evolutionary times. Our argument is that human uniqueness lies in human sociality. Namely, large-scale and widespread cooperation, the establishment and maintenance of social order, the use of language as a communication tool, advanced social cognition, and large social complexity built on social norms are characteristics of unique human sociality. Here we claim that reputation is a human invention that could have largely contributed to the development of these characteristics. Reputation-based mechanisms are fundamental to the emergence and maintenance of large-scale cooperation between non-closely related individuals by informing partner selection and conditional actions towards others. Reputation is the basis of informal social hierarchies that provide a guideline to maintain social order. Reputation concerns and gossip about absent others constitute a large part of human communication. This way, and with increased abilities of social cognition, we keep account of a larger set of individuals, and can be directed by norms that guide proper behavior and regulate interactions towards norm violators and their punishers. To provide a nuanced view on how reputation became key to all social features of human uniqueness, we consider its roles and dimensions starting from individual life and going towards interdependencies in dyads, small groups, intergroup relations, and large-scale societies. Throughout this journey from individual to societal life, we speculate that reputation has reached its central importance in small group life and not at a lower or higher level of complexity.</p> Károly Takács Copyright (c) 2022 Károly Takács https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-10-17 2022-10-17 16 2 11 51 10.6092/issn.1971-8853/14196 Period Stain and Social Evaluation. The Performance of Shame https://sociologica.unibo.it/article/view/13758 <p style="font-weight: 400;">The "period stain" could be considered as a symbolic and material object with strong moral overtones. In this article, I propose to analyze it from the research program of gossip and reputation (Giardini &amp; Wittek, 2019a) in dialogue with the intersection between Simmel’s and Goffman’s relational sociology on one side, and feminists’ theories from the other. I will give an account of the meanings attributed to body information, such as the staining of clothes with menstrual blood and the impact on the social evaluation of bodies from a woman's point of view. To achieve this, I analyze the results of an instrument applied in March 2021 entitled Virtual survey on the experience of menstruation in the context of the pandemic caused by Covid-19. Although women do not share the gender stereotypes associated with menstruation, they reveal the negative impact these stereotypes had on the social evaluation of this bodily experience. Women are concerned about the negative evaluation that others have of the experience of the period stain. I will show how the performance of shame associated with period stain is narrated; and, how mockery is an affective device of reputation. However, there are also ways to re-signify the experience based on solidarity among friends.</p> Olga Sabido Ramos Copyright (c) 2022 Olga Sabido Ramos https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-10-17 2022-10-17 16 2 53 73 10.6092/issn.1971-8853/13758 Reputation Traps https://sociologica.unibo.it/article/view/13764 <p>Reputations and the related social processes of evaluation are increasingly hailed as one of the most promising mechanisms sustaining cooperation in a variety of mixed-motive settings, ranging from neighborhood communities and formal organizations to online markets. But if reputation is such a powerful route to sustain cooperation, why do we then see cooperation breaking down so frequently? The present essay argues that such reputation failures should be conceived as part of a broader set of governance traps as they result from institutional designs that are based on misconceived assumptions about human nature. My argument comes in five steps. Using a social rationality approach, I first outline the contours of an alternative explanatory framework. Distinguishing between two types of managerial control philosophies (rational vs. normative) and two forms of control (bureaucratic vs. collegial) I then review the four major theoretical templates that currently inform the design of institutions and organizational governance structures: agency, stewardship, reputation, and social identity theory. Drawing on available empirical evidence, I subsequently describe how each of these design principles may trigger vicious cycles of cooperation decay. I refer to these processes as incentive, reputation, empowerment and identity traps. I contend that the common denominator behind each of these sustainability traps is that the structures in place fail to support the normative frame required to sustain joint production motivation. I then present findings from selected empirical studies showing how specific relational support structures may prevent the emergence of these sustainability traps, or mitigate their consequences. The essay concludes with a discussion of implications for future research on cooperation.</p> Rafael Wittek Copyright (c) 2022 Rafael Wittek https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-10-17 2022-10-17 16 2 75 102 10.6092/issn.1971-8853/13764 Tarnished Nationalism. Rehabilitating Serbia’s Reputation on the World Stage https://sociologica.unibo.it/article/view/13703 <p>Reputation management is a concern not just for individuals and organizations, but for nation states. Rehabilitating a tarnished reputation is part of the attempt by national entrepreneurs to create images that build “soft power;” a form of cultural authority. This is a concern especially for smaller nations that lack “hard power” through the dominance of their economy or military. We investigate how governmental actors and leading societal institutions attempt to rehabilitate a country’s image. In doing so, we present the case of contemporary Serbia, which acquired a negative international reputation resulting from not just the Yugoslav Wars of the 1990s, but also from long legacies of racialization via discourses of Orientalism and “Balkanism” in Western perceptions of Southeastern Europe. Unlike its neighbor, Croatia, Serbia is not a European Union member and lacks a seacoast with which to attract tourists. As a result, it must gain positive international attention in other ways. Through the examples of promoting sports successes (in basketball and tennis), “pinkwashing” or highlighting symbolic LGBT integration (while perhaps lacking day-to-day integration), becoming a popular nightlife destination, welcoming refugees as a stop on the “Balkan route,” and, most recently, deploying efforts at Covid-19 “vaccine diplomacy,” we consider the challenges to Serbia’s attempt to rehabilitate its difficult reputation. Not only is the country’s international standing a matter of profound concern to its inhabitants <span lang="EN-US">— </span>having economic, political, and symbolic impacts <span lang="EN-US">—</span> but Serbia is an archetypal case to understand the perception of “problematic” nations on the world stage.</p> Emma E.S. Brandt Gary Alan Fine Copyright (c) 2022 Emma E.S. Brandt, Gary Alan Fine https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-10-17 2022-10-17 16 2 103 116 10.6092/issn.1971-8853/13703 The Neoliberal Asylum. The <em>Ausbildungsduldung</em> in Germany: Rejected Asylum-Seekers <em>Put to Work</em> between Control and Integration https://sociologica.unibo.it/article/view/12689 <p align="justify">This paper discusses the regulation of the <em>Ausbildungsduldung</em> implemented in Germany in 2016 to integrate rejected asylum-seekers through vocational training into the labour market. I here intertwine the literature of neoliberal welfare state with the theories of border studies to understand the intersectionality of race and class in the lives of refugees <em>put to work</em>. Drawn on ethnographic fieldwork from 2016 to 2020 with refugees and practitioners, I shed light on a moral economy of deservingness underpinning the <em>Ausbildungsduldung</em> and affecting its implementation as well as the process of construction of the self negotiated by refugees during the vocational training. The analysis of the discursive, formal, and subjective dimensions of the <em>Ausbildungsduldung</em> shows how the control feature prevails over the integration aim. This pushes refugees into a legal, social-economic, and existential precarity that is institutionally produced. To be integrated, refugees have to prove their worthiness by embodying the ideal migrant: a good worker with a "<em>Beruf"</em> (profession) in the low-paid sectors of the German economy. Ultimately, this paper addresses the concept of "<em>Neoliberal Asylum"</em> to discuss how the Western states use the category of "deservingness" as moral criteria to guide the juridical measures to govern refugees through their economies.</p> Elena Fontanari Copyright (c) 2022 Elena Fontanari https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-10-17 2022-10-17 16 2 117 147 10.6092/issn.1971-8853/12689 Helga Nowotny in Conversation with Elena Esposito https://sociologica.unibo.it/article/view/15464 <p>Helga Nowotny, Professor emerita of Science and Technology Studies at ETH Zurich, is a leading scholar in the social studies of science and technology. In her extensive publications she dealt, among other topics, with social and individual structuring of time, technological innovation, uncertainty, social effects of AI, and the interaction between biological life and social life. Always intensely engaged in research policy, Nowotny is one of the founding members of the European Research Council and was its President from 2010 to 2013. In this conversation with Elena Esposito, she talks about her scientific biography, the role of technologies in the experience of time, and the relationship between STS and sociology of science. Drawing on her experience in the organization and funding of science at EU level, she also reflects on the relationship between research and science policy and on the ongoing transformations in the way of doing research and in gender issues.</p> Helga Nowotny Elena Esposito Copyright (c) 2022 Helga Nowotny, Elena Esposito https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-10-17 2022-10-17 16 2 261 273 10.6092/issn.1971-8853/15464 Sociology’s Stake in Data Science https://sociologica.unibo.it/article/view/13434 <p>Data scientists gave sociologists pause when they started disturbing social life and research. This article considers three instances where data science made inroads into the sociology jurisdiction. Instead of calling for a defense, they reveal opportunities for sociological research in the digital age. These opportunities build on the data-analytic thinking that undergirds the discipline's more salient structures and conventions. They recall old sociological intuitions and pragmatist theory that conceptualize the research process in a way that leaves room for novel observations. From this perspective, data science can help integrate sociology around new problems and shared principles and enlarge it by introducing its ideas to different audiences.</p> Philipp Brandt Copyright (c) 2022 Philipp Brandt https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-10-17 2022-10-17 16 2 149 166 10.6092/issn.1971-8853/13434 Newyorkology of Tech Capitalism https://sociologica.unibo.it/article/view/15458 <p>The paper stresses the richness, the beautiful writing and formidable ethnography of New York innovation complex by Sharon Zukin, showing both the networks, the imagination and the dark side of this complex. It shows some of micro dynamics of radical urban economic development and physical transformation of New York of the past two decades. However, the book is also an example of self centred newyorkology. <span lang="EN-US">The lack of conceptual framework, the incomplete analysis and the New York City focus also leaves the reader somehow unconvinced by some developments.</span></p> Patrick Le Galès Copyright (c) 2022 Patrick Le Galès https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-10-17 2022-10-17 16 2 167 175 10.6092/issn.1971-8853/15458 The Innovation Complex: The Haunted Mansion Perspective https://sociologica.unibo.it/article/view/15457 <p>This intervention to the debate is revolved around the issue of temporalities and the question of a real discontinuity between the Innovation Complex and previous forms of organized capitalism. Drawing on the metaphor of an haunted mansion, we argue that the conflict between capital and labour on the one hand, and the emergence of huge environmental externalities on the other hand, are reconfiguring the social and spatial arrangements through which the Innovation Complex is diffusing.</p> Giovanni Semi Copyright (c) 2022 Giovanni Semi https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-10-17 2022-10-17 16 2 177 183 10.6092/issn.1971-8853/15457 “This Is Not Just a Story About New York” – Refiguring Spaces through Innovation https://sociologica.unibo.it/article/view/15456 <div> <p><span lang="EN-US">This essay explores how Sharon Zukin conceptualizes the relationship between space and place in her analysis of how "innovation" is embedded in the political economy, culture, and geography of New York City. Whereas Zukin takes New York as a testing ground for the re-organization of capitalism around the world, I propose to conceptualize the capitalist logic of place production in more complex terms by adding two extensions. First, I propose a more thorough examination of the cultural logic of the tech industry in contrast to the creative industry and a focus on its specific forms of place-making. Second, I will argue for thinking processes of the spatialization of social phenomena in a multidimensional and polymorphic way. To this end, I argue for an understanding of social change as a "refiguration of spaces".</span></p> </div> Silke Steets Copyright (c) 2022 Silke Steets https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-10-17 2022-10-17 16 2 185 191 10.6092/issn.1971-8853/15456 Whose Tech? Whose City? https://sociologica.unibo.it/article/view/15430 <div> <p><span lang="EN-US">In response to reviews of <em>The Innovation Complex: Cities, Tech, and the New Economy</em>, the author emphasizes that every "new" economy, including the "innovation" economy connected to high-tech industries, depends on building local, spatially and socially embedded ecosystems that are not only regional districts or clusters of related producers, but social constructions of discursive, organizational, and geographical spaces. A rich case study of a single, local, tech ecosystem reveals a multidimensional "innovation complex" that represents the planetary urbanization of the Silicon Valley model.</span></p> </div> Sharon Zukin Copyright (c) 2022 Sharon Zukin https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-10-17 2022-10-17 16 2 193 197 10.6092/issn.1971-8853/15430 Archiving the Present. Critical Data Practices During Russia’s War in Ukraine https://sociologica.unibo.it/article/view/15361 <p>Russia's war in Ukraine is also a digital one: war becomes data, managed by algorithmic systems and content moderation tools of large tech platforms. This paper focuses on archiving and disinformation as two key data practices during the war. We explore how these future-facing practices are embedded in fragmented social media temporalities that interfere with the sense-making of the war. We argue that digital archiving, especially through <em>civic community archives</em>, is crucial in documenting war data and countering disinformation practices. We also posit that it is crucial to research these data practices by cooperating with local scholars and activists, with the goal of understanding the war and its implications in a manner that respects local knowledge. This is the lead essay for a special feature of <em>Sociologica</em>, and it also briefly presents the works by other contributors that make up the issue.</p> Miglė Bareikytė Yarden Skop Copyright (c) 2022 Miglė Bareikytė, Yarden Skop https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-10-17 2022-10-17 16 2 199 215 10.6092/issn.1971-8853/15361 Subscribe and Follow. Telegram and Responsive Archiving the War in Ukraine https://sociologica.unibo.it/article/view/15339 <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Being in the state of war — among many other things — means scrolling updates constantly. The hybrid nature of warfare developments is largely based on entanglements between events that you experience and mediated messages that you receive. Telegram has become an everyday go-to app for millions of Ukrainians since the full-scale invasion. The social media platform does not only reflect on current developments but also affects the warfare and wartime experiences directly. As captured and documented, it creates evidence of our recent experiences, covering all areas from the battlefield to the everyday routine across Ukraine on either side of the frontline and intertwining both physical and cyberspace. How do we capture, assess and make accessible such flows for future research, considering the legal and ethical complexity of documenting social media? With no definitive methodological answers but as an emergency effort, the Center for Urban History launched this archiving initiative to preserve the social media practices of the war in Ukraine. This essay is a self-reflection of a 5-month archiving initiative started as a civilian response to the full-scale Russian invasion of Ukraine.</span></p> Taras Nazaruk Copyright (c) 2022 Taras Nazaruk https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-11-09 2022-11-09 16 2 217 226 10.6092/issn.1971-8853/15339 Eyewitness the Russian War in Ukraine: The Matter of Loss and Arts https://sociologica.unibo.it/article/view/15272 <p>Describing the first months of the full-scale Russian war in Ukraine, this article considers the materiality of art during the war: the destruction and appropriation of cultural heritage and infrastructure, the risk of being violent, and losing a life. Furthermore, this essay problematizes the value and symbolism of objects and art and speaks of artworks as a strategy of intellectual and historical resistance.</p> Kateryna Iakovlenko Copyright (c) 2022 Kateryna Iakovlenko https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-10-17 2022-10-17 16 2 227 238 10.6092/issn.1971-8853/15272 Producing the Subject of Deportation. Filtration Processes during the Russia-Ukraine War https://sociologica.unibo.it/article/view/15387 <p>The essay theorizes the “filtration process” executed by the Russian forces on the temporarily occupied Ukrainian territories that Ukrainian citizens undergo prior to their forceful deportation to the territory of the Russian Federation. The essay broadens the timeframe of “filtration” from interrogation to various logistical steps, including the digital and biometric data collection in so-called “camps,” for instrumentalization and reification of deported civilians as data subjects.</p> Daria Getmanova Svitlana Matviyenko Copyright (c) 2022 Daria Getmanova, Svitlana Matviyenko https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-10-17 2022-10-17 16 2 239 252 10.6092/issn.1971-8853/15387 Digital Memory, Evidence, and Social Media. Lessons Learned from Syria https://sociologica.unibo.it/article/view/15383 <p>The Syrian Archive was founded in 2014, in the wake of the Arab Spring. It became clear that content posted to social media platforms was both digital memory and potential evidence of human rights abuses. Syrian Archive created tools and processes to archive that content, which proved useful in myriad places. The lessons learned from Syria have informed work all around the world. The Syrian Archive was followed by the Yemeni Archive, Sudanese Archive, and most recently the Ukrainian Archive. In 2017 the organization Mnemonic was created as the umbrella organization for these different archives, and to coordinate policy advocacy, rapid response, and capacity&nbsp; building for other human rights defenders and organizations. Mnemonic’s policy advocacy work has focused in particular on the removal of human rights documentation from social media platforms. Since the start of this year, the conflict in Ukraine has whetted the appetite of policymakers to address this problem. Now is the time to assess how social media content has been used, and bring together stakeholders to provide lasting solutions to the need to preserve this content.</p> Dia Kayyali Copyright (c) 2022 Dia Kayyali https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-10-17 2022-10-17 16 2 253 259 10.6092/issn.1971-8853/15383