Enclosure 4.0: Seizing Data, Selling Predictions, Scaling Platforms


  • Gernot Grabher Research Unit Urban and Regional Economics, HafenCity University Hamburg http://orcid.org/0000-0002-2911-9254




Platforms, Internet of Things (IoT), asset-light business model, datafication, Polanyi


Advance notice: Rather than a straight narrative, this is a roadmap, roughing out rather divergent pathways for the further exploration of platforms. The essay sets off by reiterating the agentic qualities of machinery for understanding the dynamics of platformization and elucidates the dialectical dynamics of (dis)embedded digital platform labor. Subsequently, the societal implications of the “asset-light” business model of platforms as well as of the framing of platform labor as independent entrepreneurship are explored. After perceiving datafication through the optic of assetization, the essay finally explores the platformization of manufacturing and agriculture and the morphing of the material and the digital in the Internet of Things (IoT). A somewhat restless journey, no doubt. But positioning the various pathways vis-à-vis Karl Polanyi’s stand should prevent us from losing orientation. 


Ackoff, R.L. (1989). From Data to Wisdom. Journal of Applied Systems Analysis, 16, 3–9.

Acxiom Corporation (2013). Acxiom Disrupts Conventional Marketing Models with New Audience Operating System (AOS). Acxiom.com, September 24. Available at https://www.mediamath.com/news/acxiom-disrupts-conventional-marketing-models-with-new-audience-operating-system-aos/

Airbnb Citizen (2017). Introducing the Airbnb Economic Empowerment Agenda. Airbnb Citizen Blog, March 3. Available at https://web.archive.org/web/20190622102015/https://www.airbnbcitizen.com/introducing-airbnb-economic-empowerment-agenda/

Alreshidi, E. (2019). Smart Sustainable Agriculture (SSA) Solution Underpinned by Internet of Things (IoT) and Artificial Intelligence (AI). International Journal of Advanced Computer Science and Applications, 10(5), 93–102. https://doi.org/10.14569/IJACSA.2019.0100513

Andersson Schwarz, J. (2017). Platform Logic: An Interdisciplinary Approach to the Platform-Based Economy. Policy & Internet, 9(4), 374–394. https://doi.org/10.1002/poi3.159

Arcidiacono, D. (2018). Reciprocity in the Sharing Economy: The Case for Time Banking Platforms. In I. Cruz, R. Ganga, & S. Wahlen (Eds.), Contemporary Collaborative Consumption – Trust and Reciprocity Revisited (pp. 17–33). Cham: Springer.

Ashton, K. (2009). That “Internet of Things” Thing. RFID Journal. Available at: http://www.rfidjournal.com/articles/view?4986

Beauvisage, T., & Mellet, K. (2020). Datassets: Assetizing and Marketizing Personal Data. In K. Birch, & F. Muniesa (Eds.), Assetization. Turning Things into Assets in Technoscientific Capitalism (pp. 75–95). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Berger, T., Frey, C.B., Levin, G., & Danda, S.R. (2020). Uber Happy? Work and Well-being in the “Gig Economy”. Economic Policy, 34(99), 429–477. https://doi.org/10.1093/epolic/eiz007

Birch, K., Chiappetta, M., & Artyushina, A. (2020). The Problem of Innovation in Technoscientific Capitalism: Data Rentiership and the Policy Implications of Turning Personal Data into a Private Asset. Policy Studies, 41(5), 468–487. https://doi.org/10.1080/01442872.2020.1748264

Birch, K., & Muniesa, F. (2020) Introduction: Assetization and Technoscientific Capitalism. In K. Birch, & F. Muniesa, (Eds.), Assetization. Turning Things into Assets in Technoscientific Capitalism (pp. 1–41). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Block, F. (2020). Persistent Problems in the Polanyian Critique of the Market. In C. Berndt, J. Peck., & N. Rantisi (Eds.), Market/Place. Exploring Spaces of Exchange (pp. 89–102). Newcastle upon Tyne: Agenda Publishing.

Block, F., & Somers, M.R. (1984). Beyond the Economistic Fallacy: The Holistic Social Science of Karl Polanyi. In T. Skocpol (Ed.), Vision and Method in Historical Sociology (pp. 47–84). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Block, F., & Somers, M.R. (2014). The Power of Market Fundamentalism: Karl Polanyi’s Critique. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Block, F., & Somers, M.R. (2017). Karl Polanyi in an Age of Uncertainty. Contemporary Sociology, 46(4), 379–392. https://doi.org/10.1177/0094306117714499

Bouk, D. (2017). The History and Political Economy of Personal Data over the Last Two Centuries in Three Acts. Osiris, 32(1), 85–106. https://doi.org/10.1086/693400

Bratton, B.H. (2016). The Stack: On Software and Sovereignty. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Brie, M., & Thomasberger, C. (2018). Karl Polanyi’s Vision of a Socialist Transformation. Montréal: Black Rose Books.

Büchi, G., Cugno, M., & Castagnoli, R. (2020). Smart Factory Performance and Industry 4.0. Technological Forecasting & Social Change, 150, 119790. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.techfore.2019.119790

Buğra, A., & Ağartan, K. (2007). Reading Karl Polanyi for the Twenty-first Century: Market Economy as a Political Project. Basingstoke: Palgrave.

Burawoy, M. (2010). From Polanyi to Pollyanna: The False Optimism of Global Labor Studies. Global Labor Journal, 1(2), 301–313. https://doi.org/10.15173/glj.v1i2.1079

Burawoy, M. (2014). Marxism after Polanyi. In M. Williams, & V. Satgar (Eds.), Marxisms in the 21st Century: Crisis, Critique and Struggle (pp. 34–52). Johannesburg: Wits University Press.

Butollo, F. (2019). Data, Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Industrial Platforms in Global Value Chains. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Society for Socioeconomics (SASE). New York, June 27-29, 2019.

Butollo, F. (2020). Digitalization and the Geographies of Production: Towards Reshoring or Global Fragmentation? Competition & Change, 24. https://doi.org/10.1177/1024529420918160

Caliskan, K. (2020). Polanyi, Callon, and Amazon: Institutionalist, ANT, and DRAN Approaches to Platform Economies. Sociologica, 14(3), 195–204. https://doi.org/10.6092/issn.1971-8853/11748

Callon, M. (1986). The Sociology of an Actor-Network: The Case of the Electric Vehicle. In M. Callon, J. Law, & A. Rip (Eds.), Mapping the Dynamics of Science and Technology (pp. 19–34). London: Macmillan.

Cangiani, M. (2011). Karl Polanyi’s Institutional Theory: Market Society and Its “Disembedded” Economy. Journal of Economic Issues, 55(1), 177–197. https://doi.org/10.2753/JEI0021-3624450110

Cangiani, M. (2020). Knowledge as “Fictitious Commodity” and the Knowledge Society. In: A. Turnher, B. Aulenbacher, M. Marterbauer, A. Novy, & K. Polanyi Levitt (Eds.), Karl Polanyi. The Life and Works of an Epochal Thinker (pp. 177–181). Vienna: Falter Verlag.

Constantinides, P., Henfridsson, O., & Parker, G.G. (2018). Platforms and Infrastructures in the Digital Age. Information Systems Research, 29(2), 381–400. https://doi.org/10.1287/isre.2018.0794

Couldry, N., & Mejias, U.A. (2018). Data Colonialism: Rethinking Big Data’s Relation to the Contemporary Subject. Television & New Media, 20(4), 336–349. https://doi.org/10.1177/1527476418796632

Crain, M. (2018). The Limits of Transparency: Data Brokers and Commodification. New Media & Society, 20(1), 88–104. https://doi.org/10.1177/1461444816657096

Cutolo, D., & Kenney, M. (2020). Platform-Dependent Entrepreneurs: Power Asymmetries, Risks, and Strategies in the Platform Economy. Academy of Management Perspectives, 34. https://doi.org/10.5465/amp.2019.0103

Dale, G. (2010). Social Democracy, Embeddedness and Decommodification: On the Conceptual Innovations and Intellectual Affiliations of Karl Polanyi. New Political Economy, 15, 369–393. https://doi.org/10.1080/13563460903290920

Dale, G. (2011a). Lineages of Embeddedness: On the Antecedents and Successors of a Polanyian Concept. American Journal of Economics and Sociology, 70(2), 306–339. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1536-7150.2011.00776.x

Dale, G. (2011b). Positivism and “Functional Theory” in the Thought of Karl Polanyi, 1907–1922. Sociology Compass, 5(2), 148–164. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1751-9020.2010.00348.x

Dale, G., Holmes, C., & Markantonatou, M. (2019). Karl Polanyi’s Political and Economic Thought. A Critical Guide. Newcastle upon Tyne: Agenda Publishing.

Deutschmann, C. (2019). Disembedded Markets. Economic Theology and Global Capitalism. Abingdon: Routledge.

Doganova, L. (2018). Discounting the Future: A Political Technology. Economic Sociology, 19(2), 4–9. Available at http://hdl.handle.net/10419/175572

Dolata, U.M., & Schrape, F.-J. (2018). Collectivity and Power on the Internet. A Sociological Perspective. Cham: Springer.

Donavan, J. (2019). Navigating the Tech Stack: When, Where and How Should We Moderate Content? In T. Owen (Ed.), Models of Platform Governance. Waterloo, ON: Centre for International Governance Innovation. Available at https://www.cigionline.org/articles/navigating-tech-stack-when-where-and-how-should-we-moderate-content

Financial Times (2020a). Big Tech Shows Its Resilience to Pandemic and Politics. October 30. Available at https://www.ft.com/content/ac8c0714-151b-4c2f-8eb4-2e5c480f9dec

Financial Times (2020b). Apple Develops Alternative to Google Search. October 28. Available at https://www.ft.com/content/fd311801-e863-41fe-82cf-3d98c4c47e26

Financial Times (2020c). Volkswagen’s Chief Battles to Keep Electric Dream Alive. November 5. Available at https://www.ft.com/content/b53bdaf3-2e11-4834-a260-5f3cb76cdeb9

Finger, R., Swinton, S.M., El Benni, N., & Walter, A. (2020). Precision Farming at the Nexus of Agricultural Production and the Environment. Annual Review of Resource Economics, 11, 313–335. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-resource-100518-093929

Fleming, C., & O’Carroll, J. (2012). Revolution, Rupture, Rhetoric. Philosophy and Social Criticism, 38(1), 39–57. https://doi.org/10.1177/0191453711421603

Fraser, N. (2017a). A Triple Movement? Parsing the Politics of Crises after Polanyi. In M. Burchard, & G. Kirn (Eds.), Beyond Neoliberalism. Social Analysis after 1989 (pp. 29–42). Cham: Palgrave Macmillan.

Fraser, N. (2017b). Why Two Karls are Better than One: Integrating Polanyi and Marx in a Critical Theory of the Current Crisis. DFG-Kolleg Postwachstumsgesellschaften. Working Paper, 1/2017, Jena. Available at http://www.kolleg-postwachstum.de/sozwgmedia/dokumente/WorkingPaper/WP+1_2017+Fraser.pdf

Gandy, O.H. (2011). The Political Economy of Personal Information. In J. Wasko, G. Murdoch, & H. Sousa (Eds.), The Handbook of Political Economy of Communications (pp. 436–457). Malden, WA: Wiley-Blackwell.

Gaver, W.W. (1991). Technology Affordances. Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, March, pp. 79–84 https://doi.org/10.1145/108844.108856

Gerschenkron, A. (1962). Economic Backwardness in Historical Perspective. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press.

Gertler, M.S. (2003). Tacit Knowledge and the Economic Geography Context or The Undefinable Tacitness of Being (There). Journal of Economic Geography, 3(1), 75–99. https://doi.org/10.1093/jeg/3.1.75

Goldschein, E. (2020). How to Become an Airbnb Host and How Much Can You Make? JustBusiness, September 9. Available at https://www.justbusiness.com/starting-a-small-business/how-to-become-an-airbnb-host

Grabher, G., & König, J. (2017). Performing Network Theory? Reflexive Relationship Management on Social Network Sites. In B. Hollstein, W. Matiaske, & K.-U. Schnapp (Eds.), Networked Governance (pp. 121–140). Cham: Springer.

Grabher, G., & König, J. (2020). Disruption, Embedded. A Polanyian Framing of the Platform Economy. Sociologica, 14(1), 95–118. https://doi.org/10.6092/issn.1971-8853/10443

Grabher, G., & van Tuijl, E. (2020). Uber-Production. From Global Networks to Digital Platforms. Environment and Planning A, 52(5), 1005–1016. https://doi.org/10.1177/0308518X20916507

Granovetter, M. (1985). Economic Action and Social Structure: The Problem of Embeddedness. American Journal of Sociology, 91(3), 481–510. https://www.jstor.org/stable/2780199

Gregory, R.W., Henfridsson, O., Kaganer, E., & Kyriakou, H. (2020). The Role of Artificial Intelligence and Data Network Effects for Creating User Value. Academy of Management Review. https://doi.org/10.5465/amr.2019.0178

Gudeman, S. (2001). The Anthropology of Economy: Community, Market, and Culture. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.

Guggenberger, T.M., Möller, F., Boualouch, K., & Otto, B. (2020). Towards a Unifying Understanding of Digital Business Models. Paper presented at the 24th Pacific Asia Conference on Information Systems, Dubai, June 20-24, 2020. https://aisel.aisnet.org/pacis2020/70

Haskel, J., & Westlake, S. (2017). Capitalism without Capital: The Rise of the Intangible Economy. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Hodgson, G.M. (2016). Karl Polanyi on Economy and Society: A Critical Analysis of Core Concepts. Review of Social Economy, 75(1), 1–25. https://doi.org/10.1080/00346764.2016.1171385

Holmes, C. (2019). Introduction. In G. Dale, C. Holmes, & M. Markantonatou (Eds.), Karl Polanyi’s Political and Economic Thought. A Critical Guide (pp. 1–5). Newcastle upon Tyne: Agenda Publishing.

Jessop, B. (2007). Knowledge as a Fictitious Commodity: Insights and Limits of a Polanyian Perspective. In A. Buğra, & K. Ağartan (Eds.), Reading Karl Polanyi for the 21st Century. Market Economy as a Political Project (pp. 115–134). Basingstoke: Palgrave.

John Deere (2020). MyJohnDeere Data Policy and Feature Description. Moline, IL: John Deere. Available at https://www.deere.com/assets/pdfs/common/privacy-and-data/mjd-privacy-notice/mjd-privacy-notice_r2_5.25.18_en_EN.pdf

Kantor, M., & van der Schaaf, F. (2019). How Data-driven John Deere Wins the Market. WhereNext Magazine. Redlands, CA: Esri. Available at https://www.esri.com/about/newsroom/publications/wherenext/john-deere-market-development-with-location-intelligence/

Kenney, M., Serhan, H., & Trystram, G. (2020) Digitization and Platforms in Agriculture: Organizations, Power Asymmetry, and Collective Action Solutions. BRIE Working Paper Series, 2020–4. Berkeley Roundtable on the International Economy. Available at http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3638547

Kenney, M., & Zysman, J. (2020). The Platform Economy: Restructuring the Space of Capitalist Accumulation. Cambridge Journal of Regions, Economy and Society, 13(1), 55–76. https://doi.org/10.1093/cjres/rsaa001

Kenney, M., Zysman, J. & Bearson, D. (2020). Transformation or Structural Change? What Polanyi Can Teach Us About the Platform Economy. Sociologica, 14(3), 227–240. https://doi.org/10.6092/issn.1971-8853/11475

Landes, D. (1970). The Unbound Prometheus. Technological Change and Industrial Development in Western Europe from 1750 to the Present. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Langley, P. (2020). Assets and Assetization in Financialized Capitalism. Review of International Political Economy. https://doi.org/10.1080/09692290.2020.1830828

Langlois, G., & Elmer, G. (2019). Impersonal Subjectivation from Platforms to Infrastructures. Media, Culture & Society, 41(2), 236–251. https://doi.org/10.1177/0163443718818374

Lee, K.W., & Watkins, E.A. (2020). From Performativity to Performances: Reconsidering Platform’s Production of the Future of Work, Organizing, and Society. Sociologica, 14(3), 205–215. https://doi.org/10.6092/issn.1971-8853/11673

Luban, D. (2017). The Elusive Karl Polanyi. Dissent, Spring, 68–78. https://doi.org/10.1353/dss.2017.0053

Markantonatou, M., & Dale, G. (2019). The State. In G. Dale, C. Holmes, & M. Markantonatou (Eds.), Karl Polanyi’s Political and Economic Thought. A Critical Guide (pp. 49–68). Newcastle upon Tyne: Agenda Publishing.

Marx, K. (1857/1974). Grundrisse der Kritik der politischen Ökonomie (Rohentwurf). 1857–1858. Berlin: Dietz Verlag.

Mauboussin, M.J., & Callahan, D. (2020). Expectations and the Role of Intangible Investments. Consilient Observer. Morgan Stanley Investment Management, September 15. Available at https://www.morganstanley.com/im/publication/insights/articles/articles_onejob.pdf

Menon, K., Kärkinnen, H., & Wuest, T. (2020). Industrial Internet Platform Provider and End-User Perceptions of Platform Openness Impacts. Industry and Innovation, 27(4), 363–389. https://doi.org/10.1080/13662716.2019.1673150

Miles, C. (2019). The Combine Will Tell the Truth: On Precision Agriculture and Algorithmic Rationality. Big Data & Society, 6(1), 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1177/2053951719849444

Özel, H. (2019). Commodification. In G. Dale, C. Holmes, & M. Markantonatou (Eds.), Karl Polanyi’s Political and Economic Thought. A Critical Guide (pp. 131–150). Newcastle upon Tyne: Agenda Publishing.

Pais, I., & Provasi, G. (2020). Share vs Platform Economy. Sociologica, 14(3), 217–226. https://doi.org/10.6092/issn.1971-8853/11540

Parker, G., Van Alstyne, M., & Choudary, S.P. (2016). Platform Revolution: How Networked Markets are Transforming the Economy. And How to Make Them Work for You. New York: Norton & Company.

Paunov, C., & Planes-Satorra, S. (2019). How are Digital Technologies Changing Innovation? Evidence from Agriculture, the Automotive Industry and Retail. OECD Science, Technology and Industry Policy Papers, 74. https://doi.org/10.1787/23074957

Peck, J. (2013). For Polanyian Economic Geographies. Environment and Planning A, 45(7), 1545–1568. https://doi.org/10.1068/a45236

Peck, J. (2020). Where Are Markets? In C. Berndt, J. Peck., & N. Rantisi (Eds.), Market/Place. Exploring Spaces of Exchange (pp. 49–68). Newcastle upon Tyne: Agenda Publishing.

Peticca-Harris A., deGama N., & Ravishankar M.N. (2020) Postcapitalist Precarious Work and Those in the “Drivers” Seat: Exploring the Motivations and Lived Experiences of Uber Drivers in Canada. Organization, 27(1), 36–59. https://doi.org/10.1177/1350508418757332

Plantin, J.-C., Lagoze, C., & Edwards, P.N. (2018). Infrastructure Studies Meet Platform Studies in the Age of Google and Facebook. New Media & Society, 20(1), 293–310. https://doi.org/10.1177/1461444816661553

Poell, T., Nieborg, D., & van Dijck, J. (2019). Concepts of the Digital Society: Platformisation. Internet Policy Review, 8(4). https://doi.org/10.14763/2019.4.1425

Polanyi, K. (1944/2001). The Great Transformation. The Political and Economic Origins of Our Time. Boston: Beacon Press.

Polanyi, K. (1957). The Economy as an Instituted Process. In K. Polanyi, C.M. Arensberg, & H.W. Pearson (Eds.), Trade and Market in Early Empires: Economics in History and Theory (pp. 243–269). New York: Free Press.

Polanyi, K. (1977). The Livelihood of Man (edited by H.W. Pearson). New York: Academic Press.

Polanyi, M. (1966/2009). The Tacit Dimension. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.

Polanyi Levitt, K. (1990). The Life and Work of Karl Polanyi. Montréal: Black Rose Books.

Prudham, S. (2020). The Social Metabolism of Karl Polanyi’s Fictitious Nature. In C. Berndt, J. Peck., & N. Rantisi (Eds.), Market/Place. Exploring Spaces of Exchange (pp. 171–189). Newcastle upon Tyne: Agenda Publishing.

Reitz, E. (2019). Knowledge. In G. Dale, C. Holmes, & M. Markantonatou (Eds.), Karl Polanyi’s Political and Economic Thought. A Critical Guide (pp. 191–212). Newcastle upon Tyne: Agenda Publishing.

Riasanow, T., Jäntgen, L., Hermes, S., Böhm, M., & Krcmar, H. (2020). Core, Intertwined, and Ecosystem-Specific Clusters in Platform Ecosystems: Analyzing Similarities in the Digital Transformation of the Automotive, Blockchain, Financial, Insurance and IIoT Industry. Electronic Markets. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12525-020-00407-6

Rodrigue, J.-P. (2020). The Distribution Network of Amazon and the Footprint of Freight Digitalization. Journal of Transport Geography, 88, 102825. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtrangeo.2020.102825

Romer, P.M. (1990). Endogenous Technological Change. Journal of Political Economy, 98(5, part 2), 71–102. https://doi.org/10.1086/261725

Shaya, F.T., & Eddington, N.D. (2020). Disruptive Innovation in Pharmacy. Lessons from the Amazon Frontier. JAMA Health Forum, January 29. Available at https://jamanetwork.com/channels/health-forum/fullarticle/2760416

Shao, S. (2020). Antitrust in the Consumer Platform Economy: How Apple Has Abused its Mobile Platform Dominance. Berkeley Technology Law Journal, 36. Available at http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3603682

Stark, D. (2009). The Sense of Dissonance. Accounts of Worth in Economic Life. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Sturgeon, T.J. (2019). Upgrading Strategies for the Digital Economy. Global Strategy Journal. https://doi.org/10.1002/gsj.1364

The Economist (2020a). Who Owns the Web’s Data? October 22. Available at https://www.economist.com/business/2020/10/22/who-owns-the-webs-data

The Economist (2020b). The Pandemic Has Shown that Amazon is Essential – But Vulnerable. June 18. Available at https://www.economist.com/leaders/2020/06/18/the-pandemic-has-shown-that-amazon-is-essential-but-vulnerable

The New York Times (2020a). Uber and Lyft Drivers in California will Remain Contractors. November 4. Available at https://www.nytimes.com/2020/11/04/technology/california-uber-lyft-prop-22.html

The New York Times (2020b). Fight Over Gig Workers Persists Despite Win for Uber and Lyft. November 11. Available at https://www.nytimes.com/2020/11/11/business/economy/california-gig-workers-ballot-uber-lyft.html

The New York Times (2020c). Fix, or Toss? The “Right to Repair” Movement Gains Ground. October 23. Available at https://www.nytimes.com/2020/10/23/climate/right-to-repair.html

Thompson, E.P. (1963). The Making of the English Working Class. New York: Pantheon Books.

Turow, J. (2012). The Daily You: How the New Advertising Industry is Defining Your Identity and Your Worth. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

Tödtling, F. (2020). From Physical Chemistry to the Philosophy of Knowledge. In A. Turnher, B. Aulenbacher, M. Marterbauer, A. Novy, & K. Polanyi Levitt (Eds.), Karl Polanyi. The Life and Works of an Epochal Thinker (pp. 74–84). Vienna: Falter Verlag.

Van Alstyne, M., Parker, W., & Choudary, S. (2016). Pipelines, Platforms, and the New Rules of Strategy. Harvard Business Review, 94(4), 54–62. https://hbr.org/2016/04/pipelinesplatforms-and-the-new-rules-of-strategy

van Dijck, J. (2020). Seeing the Forest for the Trees: Visualizing Platformization and Its Governance. New Media & Society, July. https://doi.org/10.1177/1461444820940293

van Doorn, N. (2020). A New Institution on the Block: On Platform Urbanism and Airbnb Citizenship. New Media & Society, 22(10), 1808–1826. https://doi.org/10.1177/1461444819884377

Villa-Henriksen, A., Edwards, G.T.C., Pesonen, L.A., Green, O., & Sørensen, C.A.G. (2020). Internet of Things in Arable Farming: Implementation, Applications, Challenges and Potential. Biosystems Engineering, 191, 60–84. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biosystemseng.2019.12.013

Wahome, M., & Graham, M. (2020). Spatially Shaped Imaginaries of the Digital Economy. Information, Communication and Society, 23(8), 1123–1138. https://doi.org/10.1080/1369118X.2019.1701696

Waldman, P., & Mulvany, L. (2020). Farmers Fight John Deere Over Who Gets to Fix an $800,000 Tractor. Businessweek, March 5. Available at https://www.bloomberg.com/news/features/2020-03-05/farmers-fight-john-deere-over-who-gets-to-fix-an-800-000-tractor

Wallerstein, I. (1979). The Capitalist World-Economy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Wiens, K., & Chamberlain, E. (2018). John Deere Just Swindled Farmers out of Their Right to Repair. Wired, September 19. Available at https://www.wired.com/story/john-deere-farmers-right-to-repair/

Wood, A.J., Graham, M. Lehdonvirta, V., & Hjorth, I. (2019). Networked but Commodified: The (Dis)Embeddedness of Digital Labour in the Gig Economy. Sociology, 53(5), 931–950. https://doi.org/10.1177/0038038519828906

Zuboff, S. (2019). The Age of Surveillance Capitalism. The Fight for a Human Future at the New Frontier of Power. New York: PublicAffairs.




How to Cite

Grabher, G. (2021). Enclosure 4.0: Seizing Data, Selling Predictions, Scaling Platforms. Sociologica, 14(3), 241–265. https://doi.org/10.6092/issn.1971-8853/12107