A Reputation-Centered Theory of Human Cooperation and Social Organization


  • Károly Takács Institute for Analytical Sociology, Linköping University; CSS-RECENS, Centre for Social Sciences (Hungary) https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9126-3233




reputation, gossip, cooperation, hierarchy, evolution of language, social organization


While all species are unique, only humans have been able to develop complex tools and technology, and to place energy and their environment under control. Social learning and extrasomatic storage of information enabled rapid development in recent evolutionary times. Our argument is that human uniqueness lies in human sociality. Namely, large-scale and widespread cooperation, the establishment and maintenance of social order, the use of language as a communication tool, advanced social cognition, and large social complexity built on social norms are characteristics of unique human sociality. Here we claim that reputation is a human invention that could have largely contributed to the development of these characteristics. Reputation-based mechanisms are fundamental to the emergence and maintenance of large-scale cooperation between non-closely related individuals by informing partner selection and conditional actions towards others. Reputation is the basis of informal social hierarchies that provide a guideline to maintain social order. Reputation concerns and gossip about absent others constitute a large part of human communication. This way, and with increased abilities of social cognition, we keep account of a larger set of individuals, and can be directed by norms that guide proper behavior and regulate interactions towards norm violators and their punishers. To provide a nuanced view on how reputation became key to all social features of human uniqueness, we consider its roles and dimensions starting from individual life and going towards interdependencies in dyads, small groups, intergroup relations, and large-scale societies. Throughout this journey from individual to societal life, we speculate that reputation has reached its central importance in small group life and not at a lower or higher level of complexity.


Adler, P.A., & Adler, P. (1995). Dynamics of Inclusion and Exclusion in Preadolescent Cliques. Social Psychology Quarterly, 58(3), 145–162. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2787039

Adler, P.S., & Borys, B. (1996). Two Types of Bureaucracy: Enabling and Coercive. Administrative Science Quarterly, 41(1), 61–89. https://doi.org/10.2307/2393986

Aktipis, C.A. (2004). Know When to Walk Away: Contingent Movement and the Evolution of Cooperation. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 231(2), 249–260. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtbi.2004.06.020

Aktipis, C.A. (2011). Is Cooperation Viable in Mobile Organisms? Simple Walk Away Rule Favors the Evolution of Cooperation in Groups. Evolution and Human Behavior 32(4), 263–276. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.evolhumbehav.2011.01.002

Andrighetto, G., & Vriens, E. (2022). A Research Agenda for the Study of Social Norm Change. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A, 380(2227), 20200411. https://doi.org/10.1098/rsta.2020.0411

Axelrod, R. (1984). The Evolution of Cooperation. New York, NY: Basic Books.

Balliet, D., Wu, J., & De Dreu, C.K. (2014). Ingroup Favoritism in Cooperation: A Meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 140(6), 1556–1581. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0037737

Balliet, D., Molho, C., Columbus, S., & Dores Cruz, T.D. (2022). Prosocial and Punishment Behaviors in Everyday Life. Current Opinion in Psychology, 43, 278–283. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.copsyc.2021.08.015

Barabási, A.L., & Albert, R. (1999). Emergence of Scaling in Random Networks. Science, 286(5439), 509–512. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.286.5439.509

Barclay, P. (2004). Trustworthiness and Competitive Altruism Can Also Solve the “Tragedy of the Commons”. Evolution and Human Behavior, 25(4), 209–220. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.evolhumbehav.2004.04.002

Barclay, P., Bliege Bird, R., Roberts, G., & Számadó, S. (2021). Cooperating to Show That You Care: Costly Helping as an Honest Signal of Fitness Interdependence. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, 376(1838), 20200292. https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2020.0292

Bateson, M., Nettle, D., & Roberts, G. (2006). Cues of Being Watched Enhance Cooperation in a Real-world Setting. Biology Letters, 2(3), 412–414. https://doi.org/10.1098/rsbl.2006.0509

Batson, C.D., Ahmad, N., Lishner, D.A., Tsang, J., Snyder, C.R., & Lopez, S.J. (2002). Empathy and Altruism. In K.W. Brown & M.R. Leary (Eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Hypo-Egoic Phenomena (pp. 161–174). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Beckwith, C.I. (2009). Empires of the Silk Road: A History of Central Eurasia from the Bronze Age to the Present. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Besnier, N. (2009). Gossip and the Everyday Production of Politics. Honolulu, HI: University of Hawai’i Press.

Bergstrom, C. T., Számadó, S., & Lachmann, M. (2002). Separating Equilibria in Continuous Signalling Games. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B: Biological Sciences, 357(1427), 1595–1606. https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2002.1068

Bicchieri, C. (2005). The Grammar of Society: The Nature and Dynamics of Social Norms. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Bicchieri, C. (2016). Norms in the Wild: How to Diagnose, Measure, and Change Social Norms. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Bicchieri, C., & Mercier, H. (2014). Norms and Beliefs: How Change Occurs. In M. Xenitidou & B. Edmonds (Eds.), The Complexity of Social Norms (pp. 37–54). Cham: Springer.

Bingham, P.M. (1999). Human Uniqueness: A General Theory. The Quarterly Review of Biology, 74(2), 133–169. https://doi.org/10.1086/393069

Bissonnette, A., Perry, S., Barrett, L., Mitani, J.C., Flinn, M., Gavrilets, S., & de Waal, F.B. (2015). Coalitions in Theory and Reality: A Review of Pertinent Variables and Processes. Behaviour, 152(1), 1–56. https://doi.org/10.1163/1568539X-00003241

Blau, P.M. (1964). Justice in Social Exchange. Sociological Inquiry, 34(2), 193–206. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-682X.1964.tb00583.x

Bliege Bird, R. & Power, E.A. (2015). Prosocial Signaling and Cooperation Among Martu Hunters. Evolution and Human Behavior, 36(5), 389–397. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.evolhumbehav.2015.02.003

Bliege Bird, R., & Smith, E.A. (2005). Signaling Theory, Strategic Interaction, and Symbolic Capital. Current Anthropology, 46(2), 221–248. https://doi.org/10.1086/427115

Bloom, P. (2004). Postscript to the Special Issue on Gossip. Review of General Psychology, 8(2), 138–140. https://doi.org/10.1037/1089-2680.8.2.138

Boehm, C. (1999). Hierarchy in the Forest, The Evolution of Egalitarian Behavior. Cambridge, MA, Harvard University Press.

Boehm, C. (2019). Gossip and Reputation in Small-scale Societies, A View from Evolutionary Anthropology. In F. Giardini & R.P.M. Wittek (Eds.), The Oxford Handbook on Gossip and Reputation (pp. 253–274). New York, NY, Oxford University Press.

Boehm, C., Barclay, H.B., Dentan, R.K., Dupre, M-C., Hill, J.D., Kent, S., Knauft, B.M., Otterbein, K.F., & Rayner, S. (1993). Egalitarian Behavior and Reverse Dominance Hierarchy [and comments and reply]. Current Anthropology, 34(3), 227–254. https://doi.org/10.1086/204166

Boero, R., Bravo, G., Castellani, M., Laganà, F., & Squazzoni, F. (2009). Pillars of Trust, An Experimental Study on Reputation and its Effects. Sociological Research Online, 14(5), 49–67. https://doi.org/10.5153/sro.2042

Borgerhoff Mulder, M., Bowles, S., Hertz, T., Bell, A., Beise, J., Clark, G., Fazzio, I., Gurven, M., Hill, K., Hooper, P. L., Irons, W., Kaplan, H., Leonetti, D., Low, B., Marlowe, F., McElreath, R., Naidu, S., Nolin, D., Piraino, P., Quinlan, R., Schniter, E., Sear, R., Shenk, M., Smith, E. A., von Rueden, C., & Wiessner, P. (2009). Intergenerational Wealth Transmission and the Dynamics of Inequality in Small-Scale Societies. Science, 326(5953), 682–688. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1178336

Bornstein, G., & Ben-Yossef, M. (1994). Cooperation in Intergroup and Single-group Social Dilemmas. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 30(1), 52–67. https://doi.org/10.1006/jesp.1994.1003

Boyd, R. & Richerson, P.J. (1985). Culture and the Evolutionary Process. Chicaco, IL: University of Chicago Press.

Boyd, R., & Richerson, P.J. (1987). The Evolution of Ethnic Markers. Cultural Anthropology, 2(1), 65–79. https://doi.org/10.1525/can.1987.2.1.02a00070

Boyd, R., & Richerson, P.J. (1996). Why Culture Is Common, but Cultural Evolution is Rare. Proceedings of the British Academy 88, 77–94.

Boyd, R., & Richerson, P.J. (2005). The Origin and Evolution of Cultures. Oxford, Oxford University Press.

Boyd, R., Richerson, P.J., & Henrich, J. (2011). The Cultural Niche: Why Social Learning is Essential for Human Adaptation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 108(Suppl. 2), 10918–10925. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1100290108

Bradbury, J.W. & Vehrenkamp, S.L. (2011). Principles of Animal Communication (2nd ed.). Sunderland, MA: Sinauer

Brand, C.O., & Mesoudi, A. (2019). Prestige and Dominance-based Hierarchies Exist in Naturally Occurring Human Groups, but Are Unrelated to Task-specific Knowledge. Royal Society Open Science, 6(5), 181621. https://doi.org/10.1098/rsos.181621

Brown, D.E. (2000). Human Universals and Their Implications. In N. Roughley (Ed.) Being Humans: Anthropological Universality and Particularity in Transdisciplinary Perspectives (pp. 156–174). Berlin: De Gruyter.

Brown, D.E. (2004). Human Universals, Human Nature and Human Culture. Daedalus, 133(4), 47–54. https://doi.org/10.1162/0011526042365645

Buchan, N.R., Grimalda, G., Wilson, R., Brewer, M., Fatas, E., & Foddy, M. (2009). Globalization and human cooperation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 106(11), 4138–4142. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0809522106

Buss, D.M. (2001). Human Nature and Culture: An Evolutionary Psychological Perspective. Journal of Personality, 69(6), 955–978. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-6494.696171

Burt, R.S. (2001). Bandwidth and Echo: Trust, Information, and Gossip in Social Networks. In A. Casella & J.E. Raunch, Networks and Markets (pp. 30–74). New York, NJ: Russell Sage Foundation.

Cavalli-Sforza L.L., & Feldman, M.W. (1973). Models for Cultural Inheritance. I. Group Mean and within Group Variation. Theoretical Population Biology, 4:42–44. https://doi.org/10.1016/0040-5809(73)90005-1

Charness, G., Du, N., & Yang, C.L. (2011). Trust and Trustworthiness Reputations in an Investment Game. Games and Economic Behavior, 72(2), 361–375. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geb.2010.09.002

Chase, I.D. (1982). Dynamics of Hierarchy Formation: The Sequential Development of Dominance Relationships. Behaviour, 80, 218–240. https://doi.org/10.1163/156853982X00364

Chase, I.D. (1986). Explanations of Hierarchy Structure. Animal Behaviour, 34: 1265–1266.

Clutton-Brock, T.H. (2009). Cooperation between Non-kin in Animal Societies. Nature, 462(7269), 51–57. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature08366

Clutton-Brock, T.H., & Parker, G.A. (1995). Punishment in Animal Societies. Nature, 373, 209–216. https://doi.org/10.1038/373209a0

Conte, R., & Paolucci, M. (2002). Reputation in Artificial Societies: Social Beliefs for Social Order. New York, NY: Springer.

Croft, D.P., James, R., & Krause, J. (2008). Exploring Animal Social Networks. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Curry, O.S., Mullins, D.A., & Whitehouse, H. (2019). Is It Good to Cooperate?: Testing the Theory of Morality-as-Cooperation in 60 Societies. Current Anthropology, 60(1), 47–69. https://doi.org/10.1086/701478

Davis, A., Vaillancourt, T., Arnocky, S., & Doyel, R. (2019). Women’s Gossip as an Intrasexual Competition Strategy. In F. Giardini & R.P.M. Wittek (Eds.) Oxford Handbook on Gossip and Reputation (pp. 303–324). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Dawkins, R. (1976). The Selfish Gene. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

De Dreu, C.K., Balliet, D., & Halevy, N. (2014). Parochial Cooperation in Humans: Forms and Functions of Self-sacrifice in Intergroup Conflict. Advances in Motivation Science, 1, 1–47. https://doi.org/10.1016/bs.adms.2014.08.001

De Dreu, C.K., Gross, J., Fariña, A., & Ma, Y. (2020). Group Cooperation, Carrying-capacity Stress, and Intergroup Conflict. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 24(9), 760–776. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tics.2020.06.005

De Dreu, C.K., Fariña, A., Gross, J., & Romano, A. (2022). Prosociality as a Foundation for Intergroup Conflict. Current Opinion in Psychology, 44, 112–116. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.copsyc.2021.09.002

de Vries, E., Kaufman, T.M.L., Veenstra, R., Laninga-Wijnen, L., & Huitsing, G. (2021). Bullying and Victimization Trajectories in the First Years of Secondary Education: Implications for Status and Affection. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 50(10), 1995–2006. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10964-020-01385-w

de Waal, F.B.M. (1996). Good Natured: The Origins of Right and Wrong in Humans and Other Animals. Cambrige, MA: Harvard University Press.

de Waal, F.B.M. (1998). Chimpanzee Politics: Power and Sex among Apes (Revised ed.). Baltimore, MD: John Hopkins University Press.

de Waal, F.B.M. (2006). Our Inner Ape. London: Penguin.

de Waal, F.B.M., & Gavrilets, S. (2013). Monogamy with a Purpose. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 110(38), 15167–15168. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1315839110

Diekmann, A. (1985). Volunteer’s Dilemma. Journal of Conflict Resolution, 29(4), 605–610. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022002785029004003

Diekmann, A., Jann, B., Przepiorka, W., and Wehrli, S. (2014). Reputation Formation and the Evolution of Cooperation in Anonymous Online Markets. American Sociological Review, 79(1), 65–85. https://doi.org/10.1177/0003122413512316

Dores Cruz, T.D., Thielmann, I., Columbus, S., Molho, C., Wu, J., Righetti, F., de Vries, R.E., Koutsoumpis, A., van Lange, P.A.M., Beersma, B., & Balliet, D. (2021a). Gossip and Reputation in Everyday Life. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, 376(1838), 20200301. https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2020.0301

Dores Cruz, T.D., Nieper, A.S., Testori, M., Martinescu, E., and Beersma, B. (2021b). An Integrative Definition and Framework to Study Gossip. Group & Organization Management, 46, 252–285. https://doi.org/10.1177/1059601121992887

Dugatkin, L.A. (1997a). Cooperation among Animals: An Evolutionary Perspective. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Dugatkin, L.A. (1997b). Winner and Loser Effects and the Structure of Dominance Hierarchies. Behavioral Ecology, 8, 583–587. https://doi.org/10.1093/beheco/8.6.583

Dugatkin, L.A. (2001). Bystander Effects and the Structure of Dominance Hierarchies. Behavioral Ecology, 12, 348–352. https://doi.org/10.1093/beheco/12.3.348

Dugatkin, L.A., & Earley, R.L. (2003). Group Fusion: The Impact of Winner, Loser, and Bystander Effects on Hierarchy Formation in Large Groups. Behavioral Ecology, 14, 367–373. https://doi.org/10.1093/beheco/14.3.367

Dunbar R. (1996). Grooming, Gossip and the Evolution of Language. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Dunbar R. (1998a). Theory of Mind and the Evolution of Language. In J.R. Hurtford, M. Studdert-Kennedy & C. Knight (Eds.), Approaches to the Evolution of Language (pp. 130–147). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Dunbar, R.I. (1998b). The Social Brain Hypothesis. Evolutionary Anthropology: Issues, News, and Reviews, 6(5), 178–190. https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1520-6505(1998)6:5%3C178::AID-EVAN5%3E3.0.CO;2-8

Dunbar, R.I. (2004). Gossip in Evolutionary Perspective. Review of General Psychology, 8, 100–110. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/1089-2680.8.2.100

Dunbar, R. (2021). Friends. Understanding the Power of our Most Important Relationships. Cincinnati, OH: Brown.

Dunbar, R.I.M., Duncan, N.D.C., & Marriott, A. (1997). Human Conversational Behavior. Human Nature, 8(3), 231–246. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02912493

Eder, D. (1985). The Cycle of Popularity: Interpersonal Relations among Female Adolescents. Sociology of Education, 58(3), 154–165. https://doi.org/10.2307/2112416

Ellwardt, L., Steglich, C., & Wittek, R. (2012). The Co-evolution of Gossip and Friendship in Workplace Social Networks. Social Networks, 34(4), 623–633. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socnet.2012.07.002

Elster, J. (2004). Closing the Books: Transitional Justice in Historical Perspective. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Ember, C.R., Skoggard, I., Ringen, E.J., & Farrer, M. (2018). Our Better Nature: Does Resource Stress Predict Beyond-household Sharing? Evolution and Human Behavior, 39(4), 380–391. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.evolhumbehav.2018.03.001

Emerson, R.M. (1962). Power-dependence Relations. American Sociological Review, 27(1), 31–41. https://doi.org/10.2307/2089716

Emler, N. (1992). The Truth about Gossip. Social Psychology Section Newsletter, 27, 23–37.

Emler, N. (1994). Gossip, Reputation and Social Adaption. In R. Goodman & A. Ben-Zeev (Eds.), Good Gossip (pp. 117–138). Lawrence, KS: University of Kansas Press.

Érdi, P. (2019). Ranking: The Unwritten Rules of the Social Game We All Play. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Estévez, J.L., Kisfalusi, D., & Takács, K. (2022). More than One’s Negative Ties: The Role of Friends’ Antipathies in High School Gossip. Social Networks, 70, 77–89. https://doi-org.e.bibl.liu.se/10.1016/j.socnet.2021.11.009

Farley, S. (2019). On the Nature of Gossip, Reputation, and Power Inequality. In F. Giardini & R.P.M. Wittek (Eds.), The Oxford Handbook on Gossip and Reputation (pp. 343–358). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Fehr, E., & Schurtenberger, I. (2018). Normative Foundations of Human Cooperation. Nature Human Behaviour, 2(7), 458–468. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41562-018-0385-5

Fehr, E., & Gächter, S. (2000). Cooperation and Punishment in Public Goods Experiments. American Economic Review, 90(4), 980–994. https://doi.org/10.1257/aer.90.4.980

Flanagan, J.G. (1989). Hierarchy in Simple “Egalitarian” Societies. Annual Review of Anthropology, 18, 245–266. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.an.18.100189.001333

Foley, C., Pettorelli, N., & Foley, L. (2008). Severe Drought and Calf Survival in Elephants. Biology Letters, 4, 541–544. https://doi.org/10.1098/rsbl.2008.0370

Foster, E.K. (2004). Research on Gossip: Taxonomy, Methods, and Future Directions. Review of General Psychology, 8(2), 78–99. https://doi.org/10.1037/1089-2680.8.2.78

Fotouhi, B., Momeni, N., Allen, B., & Nowak, M.A. (2018). Conjoining Uncooperative Societies Facilitates Evolution of Cooperation. Nature Human Behaviour, 2(7), 492–499. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41562-018-0368-6

Frank, R.H. (1985). Choosing the Right Pond. Human Behavior and the Quest for Status. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Galef, B.G., & Laland, K.N. (2005). Social Learning in Animals: Empirical Studies and Theoretical Models. Bioscience 55, 489–499. https://doi.org/10.1641/0006-3568(2005)055[0489:SLIAES]2.0.CO;2

Gambetta, D. (2011). Codes of the Underworld. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Gärdenfors, P. (2004). Cooperation and the Evolution of Symbolic Communication. In K. Oller & U. Griebel (Eds.), Evolution of Communication Systems (pp. 237–256). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Garfield, Z.H., Schacht, R., Post, E.R., Ingram, D., Uehling, A., & Macfarlan, S.J. (2021). The Content and Structure of Reputation Domains across Human Societies: A View from the Evolutionary Social Sciences. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, 376(1838), 20200296. https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2020.0296

Gavrilets, S., Auerbach, J., & Van Vugt, M. (2016). Convergence to Consensus in Heterogeneous Groups and the Emergence of Informal Leadership. Scientific Reports, 6(1), 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1038/srep29704

Giardini, F. (2012). Deterrence and Transmission as Mechanisms Ensuring Reliability of Gossip. Cognitive Processing, 13(2), 465–475. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10339-011-0421-0

Giardini, F., & Wittek, R.P.M. (Eds.). (2019a). The Oxford Handbook on Gossip and Reputation. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Giardini, F., & Wittek, R.P.M. (2019b). Gossip, Reputation, and Sustainable Cooperation: Sociological Foundations. In F. Giardini R.P.M. & Wittek (Eds.), The Oxford Handbook on Gossip and Reputation (pp. 1–37). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Giardini, F., & Wittek, R.P.M. (2019c). Silence Is Golden. Six Reasons Inhibiting the Spread of Third-Party Gossip. Frontiers in Psychology, 10, 1120. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2019.01120

Giardini, F., Vilone, D., Sánchez, A., & Antonioni, A. (2021). Gossip and Competitive Altruism Support Cooperation in a Public Good Game. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, 376(1838), 20200303. https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2020.0303

Giardini, F., Balliet, D., Power, E.A., Számadó, Sz., & Takács, K. (2022). Four Puzzles of Reputation-Based Cooperation: Content, Process, Honesty, and Structure. Human Nature, 33(1), 43–61. https://doi:10.1007/s12110-021-09419-3

Gintis, H. (2000). Strong Reciprocity and Human Sociality. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 206(2), 169–179. https://doi.org/10.1006/jtbi.2000.2111

Glowacki, L., & Lew-Levy, S. (2022). How Small-scale Societies Achieve Large-scale Cooperation. Current Opinion in Psychology, 44, 44–48. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.copsyc.2021.08.026

Goffman, E. (1959). The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life. New York, NY: Anchor.

Goldstein, T.R., & Winner, E. (2012). Enhancing Empathy and Theory of Mind. Journal of cognition and development, 13(1), 19–37. https://doi.org/10.1080/15248372.2011.573514

Granovetter, M.S. (1973). The Strength of Weak Ties. American Journal of Sociology, 78(6), 1360–1380. https://doi.org/10.1086/225469

Grove, M. (2020). A Comparative Perspective on the Origins of Inequality. In L. Moreau (Ed.), Social Inequality Before Farming? Multidisciplinary Approaches to the Study of Social Organization in Prehistoric and Ethnographic Hunter-Gatherer-Fisher Societies (pp. 167–177). Cambridge: McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research.

Hagen, E.H., & Bryant, G.A. (2003). Music and Dance as a Coalition Signaling System. Human Nature, 14(1), 21–51. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12110-003-1015-z

Handley, C., & Mathew, S. (2020). Human Large-scale Cooperation as a Product of Competition Between Cultural Groups. Nature Communications, 11(1), 1–9. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-14416-8

Hansen, S. (2013). The Birth of the Hero: The Emergence of a Social Type in the 4th Millennium BC. In E. Starnini (Ed.), Unconformist Archaeology: Papers in Honour of Paolo Biagi (pp. 101–112). Oxford: Archaeopress.

Hari, R., Himberg, T., Nummenmaa, L., Hamalainen, M., & Parkkonen, L. (2013). Synchrony of Brains and Bodies During Implicit Interpersonal Interaction. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 17(3), 105–106. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tics.2013.01.003

Hauser, M., McAuliffe, K., & Blake, P.R. (2009). Evolving the Ingredients for Reciprocity and Spite. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 364(1533), 3255–3266. https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2009.0116

Hechler, S., Neyer, F.J., & Kessler, T. (2016). The Infamous Among Us: Enhanced Reputational Memory for Uncooperative Ingroup Members. Cognition, 157, 1–13. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2016.08.001

Henrich, J. (2004). Cultural Group Selection, Coevolutionary Processes and Large-Scale Cooperation. Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, 53(1), 3–35. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0167-2681(03)00094-5

Henrich, J. & Gil-White, F.J. (2001). The Evolution of Prestige: Freely Conferred Deference as a Mechanism for Enhancing the Benefits of Cultural Transmission. Evolution and Human Behavior, 22, 165–196. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1090-5138(00)00071-4

Henrich J., & McElreath, R. (2003). The Evolution of Cultural Evolution. Evolutionary Anthropology, 12, 123–135. https://doi.org/10.1002/evan.10110

Herrmann, E., Keupp, S., Hare, B., Vaish, A., & Tomasello, M. (2013). Direct and Indirect Reputation Formation in Nonhuman Great Apes (Pan paniscus, Pan troglodytes, Gorilla gorilla, Pongo pygmaeus) and Human Children (Homo sapiens). Journal of Comparative Psychology, 127(1), 63–75. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0028929

Hess, N.H., & Hagen, E.H. (2006). Sex Differences in Indirect Aggression: Psychological Evidence from Young Adults. Evolution and Human Behavior, 27(3), 231–245. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.evolhumbehav.2005.11.001

Hess, N.H., & Hagen, E.H. (2019). Gossip, Reputation, and Friendship in Within-group Competition. In F. Giardini & R.P.M. Wittek (Eds.), The Oxford Handbook on Gossip and Reputation (pp. 275–302). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Hewes, G. (1973). Primate Communication and the Gestural Origin of Language. Current Anthropology, 14, 5–25. https://doi.org/10.1086/201401

Hill, K., Barton, M., & Hurtado, A.M. (2009). The Emergence of Human Uniqueness: Characters Underlying Behavioral Modernity. Evolutionary Anthropology: Issues, News, and Reviews, 18(5), 187–200. https://doi.org/10.1002/evan.20224

Høgh-Olesen, H. (2010). Human Mind – Human Kind: An Introduction. In H. Høgh-Olesen (Ed.), Human Morality and Sociality. New York, NY: Red Globe Press.

Hoyt, W.T. (1994). Development and Awareness of Reputations in Newly Formed Groups: A Social Relations Analysis. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 20(5), 464–472. https://doi.org/10.1177/0146167294205003

Jacques, S. (2017). What Criminals’ Tattoos Symbolize: Drawing on Darwin, Durkheim, and Lombroso. Deviant Behavior, 38(11), 1303–1317. https://doi.org/10.1080/01639625.2016.1197606

Kappeler, P.M., & van Schaik, C.P. (2002). Evolution of Primate Social Systems. International Journal of Primatology, 23(4), 707–740. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1015520830318

Kawakatsu, M., Chodrow, P.S., Eikmeier, N., & Larremore, D.B. (2021). Emergence of Hierarchy in Networked Endorsement Dynamics. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 118(16). https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2015188118

Kettler, N., Schweinfurth, M.K., & Taborsky, M. (2021). Rats Show Direct Reciprocity When Interacting with Multiple Partners. Scientific Reports, 11(1), 1–8. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-82526-4

Krause, J., James, R., Franks, D.W., & Croft, D.P. (Eds.). (2015). Animal Social Networks. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Krauss, R.M., & Fussell, S.R. (1991). Perspective-taking in Communication: Representations of Others’ Knowledge in Reference. Social Cognition, 9(1), 2–24. https://doi.org/10.1521/soco.1991.9.1.2

Kuhn, S.L. (2014). Signaling Theory and Technologies of Communication in the Paleolithic. Biological Theory, 9(1), 42–50. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13752-013-0156-5

Laland, K. (2004). Social Learning Strategies. Animal Learning & Behavior, 32, 4–14. https://doi.org/10.3758/BF03196002

Laland, K., & Seed, A. (2021). Understanding Human Cognitive Uniqueness. Annual Review of Psychology, 72, 689–716. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-psych-062220-051256

Levinson, S.C., & Enfield, N.J. (Eds.). (2020). Roots of Human Sociality: Culture, Cognition and Interaction. Abingdon: Routledge.

Lin, N. (1999). Social Networks and Status Attainment. Annual Review of Sociology, 25(1), 467–487. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.soc.25.1.467

Lindenberg, S. (1996). Continuities in the Theory of Social Production Functions. In H. Ganzeboom & S. Lindenberg (Eds.), Verklarende Sociologie: Opstellen voor Reinhard Wippler (pp. 169-184). Amsterdam: Thela Thesis.

Manesi, Z., van Lange, P.A.M., & Pollet, T.V. (2016). Eyes Wide Open: Only Eyes That Pay Attention Promote Prosociality. Evolutionary Psychology, 14, 1–15. http://doi.org/10.1177/1474704916640780

Maransky, B.P., & Bildstein, K.L. (2001). Follow Your Elders: Age-related Differences in the Migration Behavior of Broad-winged Hawks at Hawk Mountain Sanctuary, Pennsylvania. The Wilson Bulletin, 113, 350–353. https://doi.org/10.1676/0043-5643(2001)113[0350:FYEARD]2.0.CO;2

Mascaro, O., & Sperber, D. (2009). The Moral, Epistemic, and Mindreading Components of Children’s Vigilance Towards Deception. Cognition, 112(3), 367–380. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2009.05.012

Mathew, S. and Boyd, R. (2011). Punishment sustains large-scale cooperation in prestate warfare. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 108(28):11375-11380. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1105604108

Mayeux, L., Houser, J.J., & Dyches, K.D. (2011). Social Acceptance and Popularity; Two Distinct Forms of Peer Status. In A.H.N Cillessen, D. Schwartz, & L. Mayeux (Eds.), Popularity in the Peer System (pp. 79–102). New York, NY: The Guilford Press.

McElreath, R., Boyd, R., & Richerson, P. (2003). Shared Norms and the Evolution of Ethnic Markers. Current Anthropology, 44(1), 122–130. https://doi.org/10.1086/345689

Meier, S., Pierce, L., Vaccaro, A., & La Cara, B. (2016). Trust and In-group Favoritism in a Culture of Crime. Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 132, 78–92. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jebo.2016.09.005

Mesoudi, A., & Thornton, A. (2018). What Is Cumulative Cultural Evolution? Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 285(1880), 20180712. https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2018.0712

Milinski, M. (2016). Reputation, a Universal Currency for Human Social Interactions. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, 371(1687), 20150100. https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2015.0100

Miller, N. & Dollard, J. (1941). Social Learning and Imitation. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

Moffett, M.W. (2013). Human Identity and the Evolution of Societies. Human Nature, 24(3), 219–267. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12110-013-9170-3

Næss, M.W., Bårdsen, B.-J., Fauchald, P., & Tveraa, T. (2010). Cooperative Pastoral Production – The Importance of Kinship. Evolution and Human Behavior, 31(4), 246–258. https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.evolhumbehav.2009.12.004

Nieper, A.S., Beersma, B., Dijkstra, M.T., & van Kleef, G.A. (2022). When and Why Does Gossip Increase Prosocial Behavior? Current Opinion in Psychology, 44, 315–320. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.copsyc.2021.10.009

Nowak, M.A. (2006). Five Rules for the Evolution of Cooperation. Science, 314(5805), 1560–1563. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1133755

Nowak, M.A., & Sigmund, K. (1998). Evolution of Indirect Reciprocity by Image Scoring. Nature, 393(6685), 573–577. https://doi.org/10.1038/31225

Nowak, M.A., & Sigmund, K. (2005). Evolution of Indirect Reciprocity. Nature, 437(7063), 1291–1298. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature04131

Nunner, H., Przepiorka, W., & Janssen, C. (2022). The Role of Reinforcement Learning in the Emergence of Conventions: Simulation Experiments with the Repeated Volunteer’s Dilemma. Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation, 25(1), 7. https://doi.org/10.18564/jasss.4771

Ohtsuki, H., & Iwasa, Y. (2004). How Should We Define Goodness? — Reputation Dynamics in Indirect Reciprocity. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 231(1), 107–120. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtbi.2004.06.005

Ohtsuki, H., & Iwasa, Y. (2006). The Leading Eight: Social Norms That Can Maintain Cooperation by Indirect Reciprocity. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 239(4), 435–444. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtbi.2005.08.008

Okada, D., & Bingham, P.M. (2008). Human Uniqueness-Self-Interest and Social Cooperation. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 253(2), 261–270. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtbi.2008.02.041

Okada, I. (2020). A Review of Theoretical Studies on Indirect Reciprocity. Games, 11(3), 27. https://doi.org/10.3390/g11030027

Okada, I., Sasaki, T., & Nakai, Y. (2017). Tolerant Indirect Reciprocity Can Boost Social Welfare Through Solidarity with Unconditional Cooperators in Private Monitoring. Scientific Reports, 7(1), 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-09935-2

Ostrom, E. (2000). Collective Action and the Evolution of Social Norms. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 14(3), 137–158. https://doi.org/10.1257/jep.14.3.137

Page, A.E., Chaudhary, N., Viguier, S., Dyble, M., Thompson, J., Smith, D., Salali, G.D., Mace, R., & Migliano, A.B. (2017). Hunter-Gatherer Social Networks and Reproductive Success. Scientific Reports, 7(1):1153. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-01310-5

Panchanathan, K., & Boyd, R. (2004). Indirect Reciprocity Can Stabilize Cooperation Without the Second-order Free Rider Problem. Nature, 432(7016), 499–502. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature02978

Pápay, B.T., Kubik, B.G., Galántai, J., & Takács, K. (2022). Gossip Is Distinct from Other Topics of Spontaneous Conversation. Intersections, forthcoming.

Peters, K., & Fonseca, M.A. (2020). Truth, Lies, and Gossip. Psychological Science, 31(6), 702–714. https://doi.org/10.1177/0956797620916708

Podder, S., Righi, S., & Pancotto, F. (2021a). Reputation and Punishment Sustain Cooperation in the Optional Public Goods Game. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, 376(1838), 20200293. https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2020.0293

Podder, S., Righi, S., & Takács, K. (2021b). Local Reputation, Local Selection, and the Leading Eight Norms. Scientific Reports, 11, 16560. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-95130-3

Potts, R. (2004). Sociality and the Concept of Culture in Human Origins. In R.W. Sussman & A.R. Chapman (Eds.), The Origins and Nature of Sociality (pp. 249–269). Abingdon: Routledge.

Powers, S.T., van Schaik, C.P., & Lehmann, L. (2016). How Institutions Shaped the Last Major Evolutionary Transition to Large-scale Human Societies. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 371(1687), 20150098. https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2015.0098

Premack, D., & Woodruff, G. (1978). Does the Chimpanzee Have a Theory of Mind? Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 1(4), 515–526. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0140525X00076512

Rand, D.G. & Nowak, M.A. (2013). Human Cooperation. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 17, 413–425. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tics.2013.06.003

Rangel, J., & Seeley, T.D. (2008). The Signals Initiating the Mass Exodus of a Honeybee Swarm from Its Nest. Animal Behaviour, 76, 1943–1952. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anbehav.2008.09.004

Rappaport, R.A. (1979). Ecology, Meaning, and Religion. Richmond, CA: North Atlantic.

Redhead, D., & von Rueden, C.R. (2021). Coalitions and Conflict: A Longitudinal Analysis of Men’s Politics. Evolutionary Human Sciences, 3, e31. https://doi.org/10.1017/ehs.2021.26

Redhead, D.J., Cheng, J.T., Driver, C., Foulsham, T., & O’Gorman, R. (2019). On the Dynamics of Social Hierarchy: A Longitudinal Investigation of the Rise and Fall of Prestige, Dominance, and Social Rank in Naturalistic Task Groups. Evolution and Human Behavior, 40(2), 222–234. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.evolhumbehav.2018.12.001

Redhead, D., Dhaliwal, N., & Cheng, J.T. (2021). Taking Charge and Stepping in: Individuals Who Punish are Rewarded with Prestige and Dominance. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 15(2), e12581. https://doi.org/10.1111/spc3.12581

Richerson, P.J., & Boyd, R. (1998). The Evolution of Human Ultra-sociality. In I. Eibl-Eibesfeldt & F.K. Salter (Eds.), Indoctrinability, Ideology, and Warfare: Evolutionary Perspectives (pp. 71–95). New York, NY: Berghahn.

Richerson, P.J., & Boyd, R. (1999). Complex Societies. Human Nature, 10(3), 253–289. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12110-999-1004-y

Righi, S. & Takács, K. (2022). Gossip: Perspective Taking to Establish Cooperation. Dynamic Games and Applications. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13235-022-00440-4

Roberts, G. (1998). Competitive Altruism: From Reciprocity to the Handicap Principle. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B: Biological Sciences, 265(1394), 427–431. https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.1998.0312

Roberts, G., Raihani, N., Bshary, R., Manrique, H.M., Farina, A., Samu, F., & Barclay, P. (2021). The Benefits of Being Seen to Help Others: Indirect Reciprocity and Reputation-based Partner Choice. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, 376(1838), 20200290. https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2020.0290

Romano, A., Saral, A.S., & Wu, J. (2022). Direct and Indirect Reciprocity among Individuals and Groups. Current Opinion in Psychology, 43, 254–259. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.copsyc.2021.08.003

Romano, A., Giardini, F., Columbus, S., de Kwaadsteniet, E.W., Kisfalusi, D., Triki, Z., Snijders, C., & Hagel, K. (2021). Reputation and Socio-ecology in Humans. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, 376(1838), 20200295. https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2020.0295

Rooks, G., Tazelaar, F., & Snijders, C. (2011). Gossip and Reputation in Business Networks. European Sociological Review, 27(1), 90–106. https://doi.org/10.1093/esr/jcp062

Rusch, H. (2014). The Evolutionary Interplay of Intergroup Conflict and Altruism in Humans: A Review of Parochial Altruism Theory and Prospects for Its Extension. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 281(1794), 20141539. https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2014.1539

Samu, F., Számadó, Sz., and Takács, K. (2020). Scarce and Directly Beneficial Reputations Support Cooperation. Scientific Reports, 10, 11486. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-68123-x

Samu, F., & Takács, K. (2021). Evaluating Mechanisms That Could Support Credible Reputations and Cooperation: Cross-checking and Social Bonding. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, 376(1838), 20200302. https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2020.0302

Schick, K.D., & Toth, N.P. (1994). Making Silent Stones Speak: Human Evolution and the Dawn of Technology. New York, NY: Simon and Schuster.

Smaldino, P.E. (2014). The Cultural Evolution of Emergent Group-level Traits. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 37(3), 243–295. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0140525X13001544

Smith, A. (1976). The Theory of Moral Sentiments. Oxford: Clarendon Press. (Original work published 1759)

Smith, E.A. (2003). Human Cooperation: Perspectives from Behavioral Ecology. In P. Hammerstein (Ed.), Genetic and Cultural Evolution of Cooperation (pp. 401–427). Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

Smith, E.A., & Bliege Bird, R. (2000). Turtle Hunting and Tombstone Opening: Public Generosity as Costly Signaling. Evolution and Human Behavior, 21(4), 245–261. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1090-5138(00)00031-3

Smith, E.A., & Bliege Bird, R. (2005). Costly Signaling and Cooperative Behavior. In H. Gintis, S. Bowles, R. Boyd & E. Fehr (Eds.), Moral Sentiments and Material Interests: The Foundations of Cooperation in Economic Life (pp. 115–148). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Smith, E.A., & Wishnie, M. (2000). Conservation and Subsistence in Small-scale Societies. Annual Review of Anthropology, 29, 493–524. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.anthro.29.1.493

Smith, E.R., Mackie, D.M., & Claypool, H.M. (2014). Social Psychology. Abingdon: Routledge.

Smith, K.M., Larroucau, T., Mabulla, I.A., & Apicella, C.L. (2018). Hunter-Gatherers Maintain Assortativity in Cooperation Despite High Levels of Residential Change and Mixing. Current Biology, 28(19), 3152–3157. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2018.07.064

Sommerfeld, R.D., Krambeck, H-J., & Milinski, M. (2008). Multiple Gossip Statements and Their Effect on Reputation and Trustworthiness. Proceedings of The Royal Society B, 275, 2529–2536. https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2008.0762

Spence, M.A. (1973). Job Market Signaling. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 87(3), 355–374. https://doi.org/10.2307/1882010

Spence, M.A. (1974). Market Signaling: Informational Transfer in Hiring and Related Screening Processes. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Sperber, D., Clément, F., Heintz, C., Mascaro, O., Mercier, H., Origgi, G., & Wilson, D. (2010). Epistemic Vigilance. Mind & Language, 25(4), 359–393. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-0017.2010.01394.x

Stevens, J.R., & Hauser, M.D. (2004). Why Be Nice? Psychological Constraints on the Evolution of Cooperation. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 8(2), 60–65. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tics.2003.12.003

Subiaul, F., Vonk, J., Okamoto-Barth, S., & Barth, J. (2008). Do Chimpanzees Learn Reputation by Observation? Evidence from Direct and Indirect Experience with Generous and Selfish Strangers. Animal Cognition, 11(4), 611–623. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10071-008-0151-6

Számadó, S. (2010). Pre-Hunt Communication Provides Context for the Evolution of Early Human Language. Biological Theory, 5(4), 366–382. https://doi.org/10.1162/BIOT_a_00064

Számadó, S., & Szathmáry, E. (2006). Selective Scenarios for the Emergence of Natural Language. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 21(10), 555–561. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tree.2006.06.021

Számadó, S., Balliet, D., Giardini, F., Power, E.A., & Takács, K. (2021). The Language of Cooperation: Reputation and Honest Signalling. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, 376, 20200286. https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2020.0286

Székely, Á., Andrighetto, G., Payette, N., & Tummolini, L. (2020). Aggression, Conflict, and the Formation of Intimidating Group Reputation. Social Psychology Quarterly, 83(1), 70–87. https://doi.org/10.1177/0190272519882389

Takács K. (2001). Structural Embeddedness and Intergroup Conflict. Journal of Conflict Resolution, 45(6), 743-769. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022002701045006003

Takács K. (2002). Social Networks and Intergroup Conflict. [Doctoral dissertation, University of Groningen.] http://www.rug.nl/research/portal/en/publications/social-networks-and-intergroup-conflict(d518685a-7f68-4f4f-8f1d-f09f710972de).html

Takács, K., Gross, J., Testori, M., Letina, S., Kenny, A., Power, E., & Wittek, R.P.M. (2021). Networks of Reliable Reputations and Cooperation: A Review. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, 376, 20200297. https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2020.0297

Tomasello, M. (2008). Origins of Human Communication. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Tomasello, M. (2009). Why We Cooperate. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Tomasello, M. (2014). The Ultra‐social Animal. European Journal of Social Psychology, 44(3), 187–194. https://doi.org/10.1002/ejsp.2015

Tomasello, M. (2020). The Role of Roles in Uniquely Human Cognition and Sociality. Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour, 50(1), 2–19. https://doi.org/10.1111/jtsb.12223

Torres, S. (2019). Aging Alone, Gossiping Together: Older Adults’ Talk as Social Glue. The Journals of Gerontology: Series B, 74(8), 1474–1482. https://doi.org/10.1093/geronb/gby154

Turchin, P. (2007). War and Peace and War: The Rise and Fall of Empires. New York, NY: Plume.

Turchin, P., & Gavrilets, S. (2009). Evolution of Complex Hierarchical Societies. Social Evolution & History, 8(2), 167–198. https://www.socionauki.ru/journal/articles/129288

Turchin, P., Currie, T.E., Turner, E.A.L., & Gavrilets, S. (2013). War, Space, and the Evolution of Old World Complex Societies. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 110(41), 16384–16389. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1308825110

Turchin, P., Currie, T. E., Whitehouse, H., François, P., Feeney, K., Mullins, D., Hoyer, D., Collins, C., Grohmann, S., Savage, P., Mendel-Gleason, G., Turner, E., Dupeyron, A., Cioni, E., Reddish, J., Levine, J., Jordan, G., Brandl, E., Williams, A., Cesaretti, R., …, & Spencer, C. (2018). Quantitative Historical Analysis Uncovers a Single Dimension of Complexity that Structures Global Variation in Human Social Organization. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 115(2), E144–E151. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1708800115

Vale, G.L., Davis, S.J., Lambeth, S.P., Schapiro, S.J., & Whiten, A. (2017). Acquisition of a Socially Learned Tool Use Sequence in Chimpanzees: Implications for Cumulative Culture. Evolution and Human Behavior, 38(5), 635–644. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.evolhumbehav.2017.04.007

Veblen, T. (1899). The Theory of the Leisure Class: An Economic Study in the Evolution of Institutions. New York, NY: Macmillan.

Vincze, V., Üveges, I., Szabó, M.K., & Takács, K. (2021). A magyar beszélt és írott nyelv különböző korpuszainak morfológiai és szófaji vizsgálata. Proceedings of the 17th Hungarian Computational Linguistics Conference (pp. 169–182). http://publicatio.bibl.u-szeged.hu/20682/1/Amagyarbeszeltesirottnyelvkulonbozokorpuszainakmorfologiaiesszofajivizsgalata.pdf

Vitousek, P.M., Mooney, H.A., Lubchenco, J., & Melillo, J.M. (1997). Human Domination of Earth’s Ecosystems. Science, 277(5325), 494–499. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.277.5325.494

Vock, M., Dolen, W.V., & Ruyter, K.D. (2013). Understanding Willingness to Pay for Social Network Sites. Journal of Service Research, 16(3), 311–325. https://doi.org/10.1177/1094670512472729

Wang, M., Wang, J., Deng, X., & Chen, W. (2019). Why Are Empathic Children More Liked by Peers? The Mediating Roles of Prosocial and Aggressive Behaviors. Personality and Individual Differences, 144, 19–23. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2019.02.029

Watts, D.J. (2003). Small Worlds: The Dynamics of Networks between Order and Randomness. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Watts, D.J., & Strogatz, S.H. (1998). Collective Dynamics of ‘Small‐world’ Networks. Nature, 393(6684), 440–442. https://doi.org/10.1038/30918

Wellman, B., & Wortley, S. (1990). Different Strokes from Different Folks. Community Ties and Social Support. American Journal of Sociology, 96, 558–588. https://doi.org/10.1086/229572

Whiten, A., Goodall, J., McGrew, W.C., Nishida, T., Reynolds, V., Sugiyama, Y., Tutin, C.E.G., Wrangham, R.W., & Boesch, C. (1999). Cultures in Chimpanzees. Nature, 399, 682–685. https://doi.org/10.1038/21415

Wilkinson, G.S. (1984). Reciprocal Food Sharing in the Vampire Bat. Nature, 308(5955), 181–184. https://doi.org/10.1038/308181a0

Wilson, D.S., & Wilson, E.O. (2007). Rethinking the Theoretical Foundation of Sociobiology. The Quarterly Review of Biology, 82(4), 327–348. https://doi.org/10.1086/522809

Wrangham, R. (2019). The Goodness Paradox: The Strange Relationship between Virtue and Violence in Human Evolution. New York, NY: Pantheon.

Wu, J., Balliet, D., & van Lange, P.A. (2016a). Reputation, Gossip, and Human Cooperation. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 10(6), 350–364. https://doi.org/10.1111/spc3.12255

Wu, J., Balliet, D., & van Lange, P.A. (2016b). Gossip versus Punishment: The Efficiency of Reputation to Promote and Maintain Cooperation. Scientific Reports, 6(1), 1–8. https://doi.org/10.1038/srep23919

Wyckoff, J.P., Asao, K., & Buss, D.M. (2019). Gossip as an Intrasexual Competition Strategy: Predicting Information Sharing from Potential Mate Versus Competitor Mating Strategies. Evolution and Human Behavior, 40(1), 96–104. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.evolhumbehav.2018.08.006

Yamagishi, T., Jin, N., & Kiyonari, T. (1999). Bound­ed Generalized Reciprocity: In-group Boasting and In-group Favoritism. Advances in Group Process­es, 16, 161–197. https://doi.org/10.2307/2695887

Yamagishi, T., & Kiyonari, T. (2000). The Group as the Container of Generalized Reciprocity. Social Psychology Quarterly, 63, 116–132. https://doi.org/10.2307/2695887

Yamagishi, T., & Mifune, N. (2009). Social Exchange and Solidarity: In-group Love or Out-group Hate?. Evolution and Human Behavior, 30(4), 229–237. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.evolhumbehav.2009.02.004

Yamamoto, H., Suzuki, T., & Umetani, R. (2020). Justified Defection is Neither Justified nor Unjustified in Indirect Reciprocity. PloS One, 15(6), e0235137. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0235137

Yoeli, E., Hoffman, M., Rand, D.G., & Nowak, M.A. (2013). Powering up with Indirect Reciprocity in a Large-scale Field Experiment. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 110(supplement_2), 10424–10429. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1301210110




How to Cite

Takács, K. (2022). A Reputation-Centered Theory of Human Cooperation and Social Organization. Sociologica, 16(2), 11–51. https://doi.org/10.6092/issn.1971-8853/14196