Combining Mixed Embeddedness and Transnationalism: The Utilization of Social Resources among Turkish Migrant Entrepreneurs


  • Östen Wahlbeck University of Helsinki



transnationalism, glocalized networks, mixed embeddedness, migrant entrepreneurs, labour market


The article argues that the mixed embeddedness approach can benefit from a consideration of the discussions concerning migrant transnationalism. The original theorization of mixed embeddedness did not include a transnational perspective, although scholars have later combined the two academic discussions in various ways. This article argues that a transnational perspective is useful in studies of the operation of migrant entrepreneurship, but transnationalism should not be studied at a separate level of analysis. The mixed embeddedness approach can be used to analyze the processes whereby various resources are utilized, but entrepreneurs have to be seen as social actors that may operate at different interconnected scales, including a transnational level. In the article, results from a study of Turkish migrant entrepreneurs in Finland are used to describe how the entrepreneurs act to recruit trusted employees. The analysis of the results requires a consideration of both transnational social networks, including family ties, as well as the opportunity structures of the businesses. The article demonstrates how the utilization of transnational social networks is connected to wider social, political and economic contexts, as suggested by the mixed embeddedness theory. The study of Turkish entrepreneurs in Finland is used to illuminate how a transnational perspective can be successfully combined with a mixed embeddedness approach.


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How to Cite

Wahlbeck, Östen. (2018). Combining Mixed Embeddedness and Transnationalism: The Utilization of Social Resources among Turkish Migrant Entrepreneurs. Sociologica, 12(2), 73–86.